Seocheon is situated in the southwestern region of Chungcheongnam-do, facing Buyeo-gun to the east, Yellow Sea to the west, Gunsan-si of Jeollabuk-do Province to the south with the Geumgang River forming the boundary line, and Boryeong-si to the north. Seocheon has long been famous for Hansan Semosi (fine-textured ramie fabric), and its legacy has been carried on to this day. Also, the area is mostly comprised of farming and fishing villages.
The administrative system involving Seocheon first appeared with the foundation of Arim, a state formed by the villages of Mahan during the Samhan (Three Han) period. The administrative system of Arim is not accurately known as there are no records from the Samhan period. However, according to the Wijihanjeon records, there were 54 Mahan states comprised of villages in varying sizes, of which 13 states were located in Chungcheongnam-do. The aspects of sovereignty, administrative system and administrative regions of Arim were unlike those found today. However, one can speculate that it was a monarchy, in which a village was governed by a monarch, and according to the historical accounts, Arim was located around Namsan Mountain of Seocheon-eup, Seocheon-gun. A settlement was formed near the Namsan Mountain, and a village-type social state was founded centering on this settlement. This gave rise to the first form of administrative government in Seocheon.